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Saturday, 15 October 2016

CALIBRATION METHODS IN ULTRASONIC INSPECTION.

Calibration refers to the act of evaluating and adjusting the precision and accuracy of measurement equipment. In ultrasonic testing, several forms of calibration must occur. First, the electronics of the equipment must be calibrated to ensure that they are performing as designed. This operation is usually performed by the equipment manufacturer and will not be discussed further in this material. It is also usually necessary for the operator to perform a user calibration of the equipment. This user calibration is necessary because most ultrasonic equipment can be reconfigure for use in a large variety of applications. The user must calibration the system which includes the equipment settings, the transducer, and the test setup, to validate that the desired level of precision and accuracy are achieved. The term calibration standard is usually  only used when an absolute value is measured and in many cases,the standards are traceable back to standards at the national institute for standards and technology.
In ultrasonic testing, there is also a need for reference standards. Reference standards are used to establish a general level of consistency in measurements and to help interpret and quantity the information contained in the received signal. Reference standards are used to validate that the equipment and the setup provide similar results from one day to the next and that similar results are produced by different systems. Reference standards also help the inspector to estimate the size of flaws. In a pulse-echo type setup, signal strength depends on both the size of the flaw and the distance between the flaw and the transducer. The inspector can use a reference standard with an artificially induced flaw of known size and at approximately the same distance away for the transducer to produce a signal.